What Is The GRA?
The mission of the Georgia Restaurant Association is to serve as the voice of Georgia’s restaurants in Advocacy, Education, and Awareness.
The Georgia Restaurant Association (GRA) has operated as the voice for Georgia restaurants since 1906. They have very limited knowledge of the association’s activities until 1972, when under the leadership of Marge McDonald the GRA joined with the Georgia Travel, and Georgia Hotel and Lodging Association, which then fell under the umbrella of the Georgia Hospitality & Travel Association (GHTA) as its food service division (GRA) to merge the three organizations into one at that time.
What Is The Webinar About?
Many restaurant owners & managers believe their business is performing well and making a profit contrary to industry evidence.
Poor financial management prevents owners from making payroll and routinely result in restaurants shutting down. What are they doing wrong? They’re missing the secret to operating a financially sound restaurant through their third financial statement.
In this webinar, Dixie McCurley reveals the third financial statement and shares with you why it is so critical to managing and growing your business.
Access This Webinar
Listen To The Webinar
About Dixie McCurley
Never able to fully identify with the stuffy title of “accountant”, Dixie set out to revolutionize accounting practices for small- to medium-sized businesses by offering a new way of thinking about the process. Learn More…
Okay, we are good to go. For those of you looking at the screen, we are going to go ahead and get started and I will turn it over to Dixie to present.
Dixie McCurley – Presenter
Good afternoon everyone, I’m Dixie McCurley with Trusted CFO Solutions and I’m here today to talk about the Third Financial statement, what is The Third Financial Statement and why is it kept a secret from all restaurant managers and restaurant owners?
Most of you know a lot about the P&L and also know a lot about the balance statement. But the Third Financial statement is sometimes a mystery and for me and it is the key to success. And today I want to be able to teach you a little bit about the Third Financial Statement and the three why’s of why you should be using it.
So, we are going to save questions to the end. As we go through the slides you can type your questions in the box and we will answer them near the end.
Who Uses The Third Financial Statement?
So, who is the number one user of The Third Financial Statement? In my preparation for this webinar, I asked a few CFO’s and also some investors, very sophisticated investors, which one of the financial statements are their favorites and the one they rely on the most. And it was the third one.
Most of the reason why is because they want to watch the cash grow.
And lots of new restaurant owners and restaurant managers who turn into restaurant owners, sometimes you spend your life savings to be able to create and develop restaurant concepts. So when you start a restaurant you can spend 250k in it and you can also spend up to a million. But how will you be able to watch that money grow? How will you know you are on track? That you didn’t have a better chance with your 401-K or if you should have invested in real estate versus the restaurant business? That is what I really want to share with you today, it’s how investors watch their cash grow and how they use the third financial statement to be able to do that.
Another thing that investors demand is that their investment is secure. If they upfront the money for a restaurant of a $1M or $250M, they want to know it’s secure, that it will multiply and that they get a return on their investment that they couldn’t t somewhere else. The multiplication factor is very great for them.
They also want to know when will they get their money back.
For all of the spouses of rest owners and rest managers, those are the ones who are also asking, “I know that we spent our life savings on this restaurant, how can we get it back?” That is what I want to talk to you about today and that’s why I want to help teach you to how to use the third financial statement to answer that question of, “When will you get your money back out of the business?”
Related to the employee, I am assuming that today we have with us restaurant managers or restaurant employees, but also those managers who have started a business and are self-employed and maybe have their own restaurant. And when those people are successful, they turn into multiple restaurant owners and that’s where I call that the business owner. You can’t run it like you are self-employed anymore. You really have to run it like a business owner would run it.
The major point for today of why to use the third financial statement is that I want to encourage all of you to think like an investor. So, If you learn nothing from me today except for what the third financial statement is and how investors use it, that is what I want you to walk away with. I want you to start thinking like an investor, making sure your money is growing, making sure the money you invest is growing, and making sure that the value is always there. So many restaurants start with an enormous amount of capital upfront that disappears and they close within six months or twelve months. Those are the pitfalls of not having a plan of action and not knowing what the Third Financial statement is.
Here we go, now we have covered who uses the third financial statement the most. The investors, the CFO’s and the banks that use it. But what is it?
The third financial statement is one of three.
The Profit & Loss Statement
The first one is the profit and loss statement. I am impressed over and over again by the restaurant managers and restaurant owners ability to run a proper profit and loss statement. You all know what total controllable income should be. You all usually know when customers use too much of your toilet paper because you know those purchases on supplies are too high. Or, you know how to run inventory or your payroll costs. What about a bartender? If you have two that the sales don’t support it, you know how to let those people go home. You really see that level of operational activity on a profit and loss statement. The profit and loss talk about all the money coming in. That’s the income in your business. Then, if you deduct from that your expenses, your food costs you are paying for and also your expenses that you are paying for, that equals for profit and loss. That is your first financial statement.
The Balance Sheet
Next, in accounting terms, the balance sheet. That is really the second financial statement. Accountants always want to make sure that the balance sheet is accurate. That’s how we know your assets are all there. That’s how we know how much you owe everyone related to the liabilities. In addition to that, the equities section is usually somewhat of a puzzle to the restaurant managers and restaurant owners. What do retained earnings really mean? Is it worth as much as that initial investment? So, if your restaurant is two years old and you funded it with half of a million dollars, is it still worth a half of a million or is it now worth a million dollars? That’s what your balance sheet is going to tell you. It’s going to tell you what you owe more than you own or that you own more than you owe. So the worth of the business is very important.
The Cash Flow Statement
Now as important as a profit and loss statement is and as important as a balance sheet is, the third financial statement to me is really where investors say is the most important statement. And, that’s the cash flow statement. The cash flow statement takes the cash in the door, tells you where it has been put. Has it been used to buy inventory, used to by fixed assets, has it been used to cover payroll. How has that money been used up? That is what the cash flow tells us. It predicts shortfalls in funding. so let’s say payroll is due on Friday and it’s 10k but you only have 5k in the bank. That’s a 5k shortfall in cash. You’ve got to know what your cash requirements are knowing your shortfalls are going to hit to be able to survive. So, if you think about the profit and loss statement and how restaurant managers and owners know the profit and loss really, really, really well. Even if you’re profitable, profitable businesses go bankrupt every day. And profitable restaurants do, too. Because they may not predict shortfalls in cash. So, that’s what I’m here to teach you about today, the third financial statement. Because the balance sheet tells you about your worth, what your business is worth. You always want to guard that and make sure that it’s worth what you put into it and that it’s growing.
And then with the cash flow. The cash flow is where you want to see the health of the business. So let’s say you have cash needs or you have cash requirements that say you have to go to an outside investor or an outside banker. That’s one of the first statements that will be used to see the health of the business, how is the business performing, what does the cash say in terms of are you throwing off cash or are you consuming cash? Related to the cash flow statements, I’ve already mentioned that it’s the inflows and the outflows of cash. And when you are an investor, you want to make sure you get your money back.
I’m a big fan of Shark Tank. When people come to the investors in Shark Tank, one of the first things they all say is, “When will I get my money back?” I want to make sure that I’m going to get my money back. And that’s where you have to make sure the operations in your business are generating enough money to fund that payback. So, we’re going to look at and analyze at a very high-level today the cash flow statement. The third financial statement, that I would say 90% of restaurant managers or restaurant owners don’t ever use or don’t ever look at. This next slide really shows the three sections of the cash flow statement.
I’m going to try to keep it very high-level today. I’m going to not try to dive into the all of the accounting speak related to amortization and those types of categories underneath these categories. And, I want to explain to you just the three high-level sections of what all of these mean for the restaurant that you’re operating.
The Operating Section
This you can think about is where all your sells happen, all your banquet deposits and how you pay for your vendors when you buy inventory or operating expenses. These are all the sources you can think about going through your operating section, the very first section of the cash flow statement. So, I relate this, the operating section, to the kind of run out of gaslight. So if your light comes on and says you are almost out of gas and says you have 17 miles till empty and you check on your phone and you have 21 miles to your nearest gas station. You’ve got a problem. So, what are you going to do? You’re going to slow down. You’re going to try to extend the life of your gas. And that’s where we see the first step in helping to control cash where there is a shortage that’s pushing AP Vendor payments. So, when an investor sees that your AP Vendor payments have been pushed and you have to call all your vendors and say, “I know all this money is due in 30 days, but can you give me 45 days?” When you predict that and when you can talk to your vendors about that, that’s when they’re going to extend those terms to you. And, that’s how you can help manage the cash flow of your business.
The Investing Section
This can be a little bit confusing in terms of me using the word investor. But the investing section is where I want you to think about the equipment you purchased. So, think about the refrigerators, think about the fryers, think about the stuff that you use in your business that is equipment or fixed assets. That really is what the investing section is all about.
An investor knows sometimes you may not have a healthy cash position because you just sold off several assets. That increases your cash. That could be a source of inflow of cash. Cash can go up if you sell off a piece of equipment. That’s another way to help manage your cash flow when you need cash flow. Instead of going to lenders, or to the bank or instead of going to investors or to other sources of capital, you might sell off some equipment. That could also help fund any shortfalls in the first section of your operating section.
So, now that we know the first section is the operating section, and the second one is investing, the third one is the financing.
The Financing Section
And that’s where the investor money comes into the business. So when you initially open your business or restaurant, any cash flow from those investors or loan proceeds from a bank, it goes into through the financing section. And also as you use that cash, or if you pay out dividends, or you pay your loans down, it goes out through the financing section. So, what we see is that you could pay loan principals out of funds that may not be generated from the operating section, the first section. So your cash might be down. And that’s where net income or profit doesn’t always equal cash in the bank.
Lots of times I see that restaurants are overextended on their loans. They have too much equipment, too many loans, can’t pay the principal down, so that line of credit sits maxed out. That would be in the financing section that you’re able to pay it out versus if you’re paying interest on that. Those are the three different sections of the cash flow statement and most restaurant managers focus on number one, operations. So, I want to teach you about why not only the P & L and the Balance sheet are two important financial statements, but really come up with three whys you should be using the cash flow statement. I want to keep it very high level, again, I want to encourage all of you to make sure that your financials have the cash flow statement attached, or when you’re producing reports you’re reviewing the cash flow statements every month.
Now, why should you as restaurant owners or restaurant managers, why should you care about the cash flow statement. To me, it’s really about the return. The return of your investment, the return of your money, the return of what is the business worth. Is it still worth as much as I put into it? The second why is about timing. Sometimes adjustments that come from your tax accountant, or come from your CPA, where they want to reconcile the balance sheet, those timing hits of amortization, of depreciation, of accrued expenses, of the way that you book loans, of the way that you spread out that income. Those kinds of timing issues can make it very confusing to look at just the P&L and just the balance sheet and understand what’s happening with the cash position. So, once you get a handle on the P&L, the Balance Sheet and The Third Financial statement, the cash flow, that’s where you can really start to use it. When you understand the three sections of the cash flow statement and you start using it, that’s going to give you the ability to predict what you want to do with your business moving forward. And so predictability is our third why and I’ll talk about that in just a minute.
Okay, we’re to the first why and it’s called return. Investors require a return of their money.
I would say that restaurant owners spouses want a return on their investment as well. When you put money into the business instead of into a 401k, shouldn’t you be earning a return and how can you measure that? The cash flow statement is one area that you can be sure that you can pull money back out of the restaurant versus the money being gobbled up in operations.
So, the investors are looking at several different reports. The cash flow statement is usually the first one they go to. They care about, is this business generating cash, is this restaurant generating cash or is it losing cash and do we have the proper assets structured to be able to generate the sales we need. It’s those types of questions the investors care about. They want to see that your processes are good. They want to see the P&L, too, but they really want to see the cash flow statement. Investors predict growth and they are willing to give you more money if you can show them that you’re growing and that your operations are throwing off cash. That’s usually the very best time to ask them for more money, its when you don’t need it. Back to the Shark Tank analogy, they always tell the people in front of them, the people who want them to invest, that if they get lots of sales, they’ll fund the growth of the inventory. So they have to have big warehouses, they have to build inventory to be able to support that in their operations. That build up, investors will support you for that. Investors will loan you money for that to support the growth, but you have to be able to break it down for them. How much cash is operations throwing off, how much cash do you have in the investing section for your fixed assets and equipment and then how much do you have from investors in the financing section and how much have you given back through dividends back to your investors? That’s the rules of the cash flow statement. That was the first why you want a return from your business. You want to monitor it and make sure you will get a return.
The second why is about timing. The difference of the timing is the cash flow statement reconciles or connects the dots between the P&L, the profit and loss statement and the balance sheet. So related to if you’re making a profit or if you have cash, I cannot tell you, probably 75% of the business I spoken to in my career, might have a profit but don’t have their hands around cash. It is because of the way cash flow is really missing. Because of timing issues and the way that things are booked due to accounting rules, you’ve got to use a cash flow statement to thoroughly understand the cash in and cash out of the business.
So, this is as detailed as I’m going to get today related to the lower level underneath these financial statements. I want to talk through about how the balance sheet is used to create the cash flow statement.
The equipment section as you can see on the left has the dotted line flows right into the investing section. So, accountants look at periods of time and measure it to come up with a statement of cash flow. But, if you as restaurant managers and restaurant owners, will look at the trends of those things, the trends of the operating section. Has it gone up? Has cash gone up in the operating section? That’s a very good thing. It means your business is generating cash.
Now, what about the investing section? Is it going up or is it going down? That’s very important. And also the financing. Have you had to get more funding from investors? Have you yourself had to put more money into the business? Have you had to go get loans from banks? Are you having to increase the financing section because maybe your operations are draining it?
Those three sections are what can help you predict the health of your business in the cash flow statement. So, the accountant makes accruals to make sure the balance sheet balances are accurate. They look at your bank statements to make sure the bank balance is right. They look at your loan statements to make sure your liability section is right. They look at your fixed assets to make sure they have depreciated properly. So, they make sure the balance sheet is right and then they report on the cash that came into the business and out of the business. So, that’s what accountants do, in general.
Before 1988 the cash flow statement didn’t even exist. So, why was it created? Well, it was created because business owners and business professionals and professional investors demanded it. They demanded from the accounting standards board that we wanted to see the cash inflows clearly, where the cash came into the business and cash went out of the business without just having to look at all the bank accounts. So, the cash flow statement was created and now it is the Third Financial Statement that should be included in all of your month end close packages that you do.
For me, I hate it when I have to tell a client about accrual adjustment and they don’t understand because I’ve talked to them in accounting speak. And it’s sometimes like going blah, blah, blah. So, I want to make sure that I’m very clear today. If you have questions related to any of those sections in the cash flow statement or questions about how the P&L and Balance Sheet are connected by the cash flow statement, please go ahead and submit those questions, because the last thing I want to tell you today is blah, blah, blah and it not relate to teaching you how you can use the cash flow statement to help grow your business.
Okay, so that was the second why. That was the timing. And the cash flow statement does that.
Now the third reason why you’ve got to start learning how to use the cash flow statement and why it’s so important in business is it gives you the ability to predict the shortfalls and the surpluses in your business.
As I mentioned before, we had a client who several years ago opened a restaurant. They had ten investors and they invested, let’s say $10K each. So, that would be $100K invested in the restaurant. That was to get paid back in 2 years. But the restaurant did so well that the investors got paid back in nine months. Immediately, the investors wanted to open a second restaurant location, they wanted to give back those funds. So how you get the money out of your business can predict when investors get their money back or predict that you’re going to need money from them to fund payroll, you need to be able to explain why. So, this is one of my favorite graphs, my favorite slide throughout the whole presentation is this graph that shows when I look at it what I see about operations.
I see that in 2010 a large percentage, almost 90% of the case used in the business was generated from operations. Then we see that that percentage slowly declined year over year. So, those with the green bars show that the percentage given off operations continue to decline but now it’s on the uptake for 2014. Related to the very dark gray sections are net increases in debt. So what that means is they were able to fund the shortfall of cash usage that wasn’t generated from operations with debt, they took on loans. You can see clearly as an investor over the last 5 or 6 years of this business how they’ve been able to fund it either with loans or selling off of fixed assets. So that’s the top part of this graph. The light gray area is a fixed asset so that’s cash in as well. So these three breakdowns are very important to investors when you need money.
How Do You See Yourself 5 Years From Now?
You’ve got to be able to show them and then not only do that and understand the cash flow statement, but that’s when it all begins with the prediction. So what do you want to do in your business for the next two years? Where do you see yourself? Or, how do you see yourself? What about three years, will you have another location? Will all of your investment capital be returned? And, what about in five years? Do you want to exit the business? Do you want to position it for sale? The cash flow statement understanding where cash has to come from, understanding who gets their money back, that’s the five-year cash flow forecast. In that five-year cash flow projection that’s so important. So point number three, on to be able to predict what’s going to happen in your business. That’s why you want to understand how to use the cash flow statement.
This is my second favorite graph of the whole webinar slideshow.
The top curve that is blue shows how the business is using cash and the bottom curve shows the cash that is used for operations, the green curve, that there’s a gap in 2014. So, that there shows that you are predicting there is going to be a shortfall of cash, we’re going to use more cash than we throw off from operations. It looks like they have a budget, it looks like they understand it, but how do you close the gap?
You want to make those decisions or do you need to go get more debt? Do you need to present to a bank? Or do you need capital? Do you need an investment from your investors? This helps you make those decisions on covering the gap so there are no surprises.Because, what do investors hate the most? It’s not just the cash shortfall that’s bad. What’s worse than a cash shortfall, is that of a surprise cash shortfall. So, investors hate surprises. Surprising them on a Friday that payroll is due on Monday and they need to write a check for 15k or you’ll go bankrupt and your employees won’t get paid, that’s the worst thing you can do as a restaurant manager.
And, restaurant managers and restaurant owners, I believe it’s your job to prevent those surprises in cash flow. You need to start with a weekly cash flow, make sure you have it month-to-month, understand the cash flow statement almost as well as you do your P&L and your balance sheet. But avoid those surprises so your investors won’t be upset and your spouse won’t be upset when you have to fund the business more as a surprise.
Rules About Cash Flow
Okay, so, there are a couple of rules about cash flow. One is that you could be going up in cash flow and your operations could be doing great.
That will be the two green bars that we see. But then what happened? Why did it go down and then why did it go down the next year in terms of your cash level.
Well, one rule is that growth sucks up cash, and if you’re growing, let’s say your sales, you’re turning tables more often. Let’s say instead of two table turns, you’ve now got three table turns per night. And you are driving table turns, so you’re driving covers. You’re going to need more inventory probably. You may even need more support help related to payroll. What else do you need? Those require cash. It sucks it up. Especially, if you are adding locations. That also sucks up cash, that growth.
So, where do you start?
You’ve got to make sure that you work with your accountant to create a budget and when you have your budget, you know what to expect and you can make decisions to avoid those surprises so that you can plan for growth. It also requires accurate accounting records. We don’t want to ever make adjustments as accountants. We don’t want to make adjustments that disrupt your view of what’s happening in the business. We want you to understand what those adjustments are and the cash flow statement, understanding that really connects the dots between the P&L and the balance sheet.
So, I encourage you today to think like an investor and treat your restaurant like a true business. Make sure it’s still worth what it is that you originally put in it. So, what you now know today is What is the Third Financial statement. Well, it’s the cash flow statement and it only has three sections.
What You Now Know
So ask yourself, do you remember the three sections today. The first section operating, the second section investing which would be fixed assets or equipment, and the third section financing, where your loans come in or where your investor money comes in. Okay, so then what do you do restaurant managers and owners? How do you use it?
You’ve got to make sure that you have a return on your business. You want to make sure that you avoid timing issues that make the P&L or the Balance sheet not show the true ins and outs of the cash that goes into your business. That will allow you to predict the future, predict where you want to go and be able to plan for it. To be able to know who is going to fund it. Are you going to have to fund it, are your operations going to have to fund it or do you have to get the money from a bank? And, that puts you in the power position to make sure you are running a healthy business. That’s the importance of thinking like an investor. Make sure that they fully understand and look at the third financial statement, the cash flow statement.
The Bottom Line
So, the bottom line on today’s webinar is that a lot of restaurants fail in three years. 59% fail. One of the biggest contributing factors is poor cash flow management. It’s causing more business failures today than ever before.
So, you’ve got to be able to overcome the cash flow problem. When I was doing the research for the webinar and some of those statistics that I found, I was shocked that 90% of small business failures are from poor cash flow. 90% of the failures are related to poor cash flow.
Some of the top causes that we’ve covered a little bit today really are that insufficient funding of capital. Let’s say you’ve used your life savings to start a restaurant business. And maybe you invested 75K or maybe you invested 350K into it. But it wasn’t sufficient capital for you to have the working capital that your restaurant required. That’s one big reason why cash flow problems exist, it’s that it’s not properly funded. The cash flow statement really helps you overcome that.
Also, poor inventory management is a huge issue in the restaurant industry. Everyone always says how do we handle inventory? How do we know about food spoilage? Is it using up too much cash? Do I have too much inventory?
Those are the first places to go after cash if you’re running a shortfall is the inventory management. Then, also, if you purchase too many foodstuff or have too much equipment in your business, those are also top causes of poor cash flow that causes 90% of restaurants to fail.
Then last but not least. I’ve already really pounded home the growth. You can’t grow without cash. Growth, especially unexpected growth, night overnight, week over week, or month over month, look at the trend. If you’re growing you’re probably using up cash. It could be a great problem to have, but make sure it doesn’t throw you into the failure rate. The 90% failure rate of having poor cash flow management.
Think Like An Investor
I encourage you to think like an investor and treat your restaurant like a true business and make sure it returns what you’ve always put into it.
So, we’ll take just a few minutes to answer your questions. I know that the cash flow statement can be a complex area and discussion topics in restaurants. I’m happy to answer any of your questions.
Okay, so one of the questions we’ve got here is about getting a copy of the slides. Just so that everyone knows, this webinar is being recorded. We’re going to see if we can find a way to put it up on our website. Our webinars are recorded and you can find them on our website. Especially for those of you that are not using your computer and have been following along with the slides. That way you can see the recording and hear what Dixie has also been talking about. That is one of the major questions here. If I don’t see any others questions, is there a really common questions that you all have regarding the cash flow statement?
Yes, the most common question is, I know my business is profitable, my P & L is positive but I don’t have any cash in the bank. That’s when I say, that’s where the cash flow statement connects to the two financial statements, the P & L to the cash so it’s recorded on the balance sheet. You’ve got to use the cash flow statement to be able to understand why you don’t have cash that you need before you go bankrupt. Right, so that’s probably what comes all the disconnect.
For those of you joining us this afternoon, thank you so much for listening in. Thank you so much again to Dixie for taking the time to present to our members on this topic. Keep an eye out, we’ve got our next webinar coming up that’s presented by Consolidated Concepts on avoiding the PR nightmare and that is on August 2 at 2 pm. Also, keep an eye out for the survey that is coming out at the conclusion of this webinar.
You can see the best way to reach Dixie. The follow-up email will have Dixie’s contact information in there and a way for you to learn more about Trusted CFO Solutions and what they do for their clients every day. If you have any further questions, there is Dixie’s contact information in the email. So keep an eye out for that. Thank you, everyone. Have a great afternoon.